Cybercrimes and cyberwarfare are actions of different multitudes, the the line between espionage and attact are thin and can easily escalate. What justifies retaliations and warrants an armed response? How do we respond with due diligence of our democractic process if speed and secrecy are of essence to any counter-attack?
Militarizating of cyberspace and the secrecy implied by cyberwarfare add to the moral panic that enhances our current anxieties. Nick Dyer-Witheford and Svitalana Matviyenko argue that cyberwarefare is a manifestations of global capitalism’s “unconscious” (135). The neoliberal discourse of globalization and its celebration of competition can end in ultimate destructions found in war.
Foremost, cyberwar can be reinforced and undermined by private actors, hacker armies and profit cyber-security firms. The industrial military complext of national securty states are interrelated with various networks and are dependant on coporate collaboration which can constrain state power. Digital warfare can often be taken by unoffice or semi-offical para-states in networked organization that operates in the shadows of our neoliberal state, beyond public oversight and democratic control.
Network logic further maintains that any networked social media movements or traditional organizations are severly vulnerable to surveillance cyber-crackdowns. Nevetheless, we are also unthinkly or unwittling complict in everday involvement of our ubiquitously networked social context, which is the basis of any malware, bot net, big data scanning survaillance.
Yet, as Stephen Grahman shows, any infrastructure attacks has a chain of consequences. We cannot just attack and leave as if we are securely draw a boundary of ‘death worlds’ within postcolonial geopolitical spaces (Mbembe 2003). Caution is implored as “any attack on Iraq might easily led to the collapse of Europe’s ATM machines” (126). Our dependance and shift to networked organization, to Internet of Things, create vulnerable points that rest on a divide of those who innovate/hackers and those that control the vectors and networks.